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Research & Development


Healthy, Happy Kingfish

Nutrition is directly related to the growth of our fish and is also an important factor that influences water quality in farming systems (e.g., by releasing nutrients from feed). Kingfish Zeeland has started to breed yellowtail kingfish based on experiences and feeds developed for other fish species, and adjusted to the farming system according to the best insights. Since yellowtail kingfish is a relatively new species in aquaculture, more research and development are needed to achieve better feeding protocols tailored to the specific needs of this species. This will ultimately contribute to the goal of achieving increased welfare and improved health of our yellowtail and even higher water quality in the farming systems.

There is a clear separation within the farming system of Kingfish Zeeland between the hatchery section, where the yellowtail grows from egg to juvenile fish, and the farming section, where the fish are raised from juveniles to consumption size. There is also a clear distinction between the feeds used in the two sections. To gain actual control over the welfare and health of our yellowtail, it will be essential to continuously analyze them. Therefore, the ability to detect and trace deformities in early life stages is crucial.

This project has three sub-objectives that must be achieved to support the main objective:

  1. Development of feeds and feeding protocols for the hatchery

  2. Development of feeding for the farming system

  3. Development of a detection and tracing system for deformities


The knowledge development around (the raw materials and composition of) feeds for the hatchery and farming system will lead to improved fish performance (e.g., fewer deformities and increased welfare) and will result in new insights and alternative raw materials for the use of fishmeal and oil in fish feeds. Additionally, the project will lead to improved water quality in the farming system, which will directly affect the welfare of the yellowtail and the environmental impact of the farming system (less fresh water required and less discharge of polluted water).

The project will be executed by Kingfish Zeeland. Kingfish will be assisted by two scientific organizations: Wageningen University and Ghent University. Within Wageningen University, the Department of Animal Sciences (Aquaculture and Fisheries Chair Group) will be involved in the project. Within Ghent University, two departments will be involved: the Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Centre (ARC) and the Department of Biology.

This project receives co-financing from the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund under the Innovation Projects Aquaculture 2019.


Hightech systems for fish-friendly breeding of Yellowtail Kingfish

The development, implementation and testing of:
a high-tech water purification system for surface water; an innovative fish-friendly transport system; and an innovative, reliable stunning system that provides a fish-friendly breeding process for Yellowtail Kingfish. This project receives co-financing from the European Regional Development Fund in the context of OPZuid.


Yellowtail Kingfish: Duurzaam en Natuurlijk (Sustainable and Natural)

The goal of this project is to make the farming system for our Yellowtail Kingfish even more sustainable. To this end, knowledge will be gathered, and technical developments will be carried out related to 4 crucial domains: development of an organic feed; development of an optimal light regime for the fish; development of an optimal flow regime in the breeding tanks; development of a detection system for off-flavours (geosmin). The ultimate goal of these developments is to realize improved growth and increased animal welfare. The knowledge development from this project can lead to valuable insights that serve as a basis for similar research with other fish species. This project receives co-financing from the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (European Union) within the framework of 2017INNAQUA (Innovation Projects Aquaculture 2017).


Sustainability is at the core of every choice we make.

Land-based Marine Aquaculture is facing a watershed moment, moving from experimental to practical technology that is poised to fill the growing supply gap.


It starts with fresh North Sea water flowing through a pristine nature reserve marine estuary. And then we make it even better: our advanced system purifies, enriches and adapts the water to the Yellowtail's optimal conditions.


Working closely with some of the world's leading

equipment suppliers and engineering companies, we have access to proprietary first hand expertise regarding the requirements and demands of the Yellowtail in land-based recirculation systems. This has resulted in Kingfish Zeeland’s production facility, which has been designed to achieve levels of control, safety, reliability and sustainability not currently available in alternative production systems.

Fresh marine water is drawn at high replacement rates, purified, oxygenated and meticulously monitored and controlled to create optimal temperature, light and water conditions for the Yellowtail, resulting in healthy, strong and apparently happy fish.

• Close to market, fresh, year round production​

• Optimal growth conditions (oxygen, water quality that can be monitored and controlled)​

• No feed waste​

• Lower Feed Conversion Ratios (lower FCRs are better, as it implies higher efficiency in  converting

feed into growth in body mass)​

• Reduced risks of disease and mortality

 No need for medication​

• Minimal resource and natural waste footprint​

• Small land requirement (a 2000 ton system requires only 3 hectares)​

• Seawater-based system means no fresh water is wasted.​

• Solid output can be separated from seawater and used as fertilizers​

• Reduced manpower requirements​

• Isolated from predators, extreme weather, water pollution, parasites, or algal blooms 

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Kingfish Zeeland is located in the Province of Zeeland, in the Netherlands, on the shores of a pristine marine estuary nature reserve.

Clean fish eat well and swim in pure water. For our Yellowtail, it starts with the pristine water of a Natura 2000 marine estuary Nature Reserve. And then we make it better.

Utilizing cutting edge technology, over 30 years of hands-on marine fish farming experience, and the strictest  sustainability practices, Kingfish Zeeland is introducing a uniquely pure fish to the premium EU market: Fresh daily deliveries of locally grown, Dutch Yellowtail (Hiramasa / Kingfish / often used interchangeably with close cousin Hamachi or just as "Yellowtail")

Our dos

Our don'ts


Green, renewable electricity



Low impact on





Dutch Yellowtail 
has landed

Swimming with

our fish


A  Oost-Zeedijk 13  

    4485 PM Kats, the Netherlands



T +31 (0) 113 74 54 61


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